Tuesday, 12 April 2011

cultivation of tomato

tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
PKM 1, CO 3 (Marutham) and Paiyur 1, Arka Abhijit, Arka Abha, Arka Ananya, Arka Alok, Arka Shreshta, Arka vardan, Arka Vishal, Arka Vikas, Arka Saurab, Arka Meghali and Arka Ahuti are some of the popular varieties.

Well drained loamy soils rich in organic matter with a pH range of 6.5-7.5 are more suitable.

Season of sowing
Planting is done during May - June and November – December

Seed rate
About 400g of seeds is required for a hectare.

Seed treatment
Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride 4 g or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g or Carbendazim 2 g per kg of seeds 24 hours before sowing. Just before sowing, treat the seeds with 40 g of Azospirillum.

Nursery preparation
Apply FYM 10 kg, Neem cake 1 kg, VAM 50 g, Super phosphate 100 g and Furadon 10 g per square metre during the nursery area preparation. Sow the seeds in lines at 10 cm apart in raised seed nursery beds and cover with sand. Irrigation is done using rose can and the seedlings are transplanted 25 days after sowing.

Preparation of field
Plough the land to a fine tilth. Apply 2 kg/ha of Azospirillum and Phosphobacterium mixed with 100 kg FYM before planting and form ridges and furrows.

PKM 1, Paiyur 1      :  60 x 45 cm
Co 3                        :  45 x 30 cm

Irrigate the field and then transplant the seedlings on one side of the ridges.

Life irrigation is given on 3rd day of planting followed by subsequent irrigations once in 4-5 days. After establishment of seedlings irrigate at weekly intervals.

Application of fertilizer
Apply FYM 25 t/ha, N 75 kg, P 100 kg, K 50 kg, Borax 10 kg and Zinc sulphate 50 kg/ha as basal dose and 75 kg N/ha on 30th day of planting during earthing up. Spray 1.25 ppm (1.25 mg in one lit) Triacontanol, 30 days after transplanting and at full bloom stage to increase the yield.

Weed control
Apply Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i./ha or Fluchloralin 1 kg a.i./ha as pre-emergent herbicide followed by one hand weeding on 30 days after planting. Mulching with black Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) sheets of 25 micron thickness by burying both the ends into the soil to a depth of 10 cm will avoid weed growth.

PKM 1            : 30-35 t/ha
CO 3               : 40 t/ha
Paiyur              : 30 t/ha

COTH 1 and COTH 2




Planting is done during May – June and November – December

Seed Rate
About 150 g of seeds are required for a hectare

Seed Treatment   
Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4g/kg of seeds 24 hours before sowing and with Azospirillum @ 20 g/150 g just before sowing.

Nursery preparation
The seedlings are raised under 50% shade net nursery unit. Seeds can be sown in 0.8 mm thick protrays (98 cells) filled with 1.25 kg composted coir pith. The seeds are sown @ one seed per cell and kept in the raised beds. The seedlings are transplanted 25 days after sowing.

Field preparation and planting
Prepare the field with the addition of FYM @ 25 t/ha and form ridges and furrows at a spacing of 60 cm. Apply each 2 kg/ha (10 packets) of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria by mixing with 20 kg of FYM. Irrigate the furrows and transplant the seedlings, with the ball of earth, on the ridges adopting a spacing of 45 cm between the plants.

Basal Dose   :  NPK 50:300:50 kg/ha
Top dressing :  N and K each 150 kg/ha in 3 equal splits at 30, 45 and 60 days after planting.

Irrigate the field on the third day of planting and subsequently at weekly intervals.

Weed control
Apply Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i./ha or Fluchloralin 1 kg a.i./ha as pre-emergence followed by one hand weeding on 30 days after planting. Mulching with black Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) sheets of 25 micron thickness by burying both the ends into the soil to a depth of 10 cm will avoid weed growth.

After cultivation
a) Stake the plants 30 days after planting with 1 - 1.5 m tall stakes.
b) Remove the side branches up to 20 cm from ground level.
c) Foliar spray of ZnSO4 (0.5 per cent) thrice at 10 days interval from 40 days after planting.

Average yield is 80-90 t/ha

Plant Protection
Fruit borer
Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura (common control measures for both the pests)
Grow simultaneously 40 days old American tall marigold and 25 days old tomato seedlings @ 1:16 rows.
1. Set up pheromone traps @ 12/ha.
2. Collection and destruction of damaged fruits and grown up caterpillars.
3. Spray Endosulfan 35 EC 2 ml/lit or Carbaryl 50 WP 2 g/lit or Bacillus thuringiensis 2g/lit or Quinalphos 2.5 ml/lit.
4. Release Trichogramma chilonis @ 50000/ha/release coinciding with flowering time and based on ETL.
For Helicoverpa armigera:
Helicoverpa armigeraNuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (H.a.NPV) 1.5 x 1012 POBs/ha
For Spodoptera litura:
Spodoptera litura Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (S.l. NPV )1.5 x 1012 POBs/ha5. Provide poison bait with Carbaryl 1.25 kg, rice bran 12.5 kg, jaggery 1.25 kg and water 7.5 lit/ha.

Helicoverpa armigera

Serpentine leaf miner
Serpentine leaf miner can be controlled by spraying Neem Seed Kernel Extract 50 g/lit.

1. Install yellow sticky traps to attract the adult.
2. Spray Dichlorvos 76 WSC @ 1 ml/lit or Triazophos 40 EC 2 ml/lit or fish oil rosin soap 25 g/lit or Dimethoate 2 ml/lit or Methyl demeton 25 EC 2 ml/lit along with the wetting agent (Teepol@ 1 ml/lit)
3. Remove alternate weed host Abutilon indicum

Application of Carbofuran 3 G at 10 g/sq.m at sowing and 1 kg a.i./ha in the main field one week after transplanting. Treat the seeds with antagonistic fungi Trichoderma viride or T. harzianum at 4 g/ha seed along with pressmud at 5 kg/m2  or Carbofuran 3G at 10 g/m2 to control rootknot nematode.

Damping off (nursery)
Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride 4 g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g /kg of seed 24 hours before sowing. Apply Pseudomonas fluorescens as soil application @ 2.5 kg/ha mixed with 50 kg of FYM.  Water stagnation should be avoided. Drench with Copper oxychloride at 2.5 g/lit at 4 lit/sq.m.

Leaf spot
Leaf spot can be controlled by spraying Zineb or Mancozeb 2 g/lit.
Leaf curl
Spray systemic insecticides like Methyl demeton or Monocrotophos or Dimethoate at 2 ml/lit. to kill the insect vector (whitefly).
Tomato spotted wilt disease
Apply Carbofuran 3 G 1 kg. a.i./ha in nursery at sowing and second application at 1.25 kg a.i./ha 10 days after transplanting in mainfield and 3 sprays of Endosulphan 35 EC 1.5 ml/lit @ 25, 40, 55 days after transplanting.
spottedwilttomato2small ghtswv1
Tomato spotted wilt disease

Friday, 8 April 2011

post harvest handling of cut flowers

Post Harvest Handling of Cut Flowers
           A fresh flower is still a living specimen even though it has been cut from the plant. Its maximum potential vase life, although acceptable in the marketplace, is short. There are many impinging forces that can interact to reduce fresh-flower vase life. As an industry, we need to be more successful in preserving the potential life of fresh flowers. However, there are well-known solutions for the bulk of this problem. First, we need to take a look at why there is such a decline in the vase life of fresh flowers.
Cultural Influences:            Basically, those forces which improve crop quality before and after harvest usually improve vase life. Light intensity is very important. A crop grown under low light, such that light is a limiting factor for photosynthesis, will be low in carbohydrate content. Respiration continues after the flower is harvested, but little photosynthesis occurs, because light is limited in the packing house, florist shop, and consumer's home. When carbohydrates are low, respiration is very low and flower senescence (deterioration) occurs. Optimum light intensity during growth of the crop is very important to vase life. Temperature also influences photosynthesis and respiration, which in turn influence carbohydrate accumulation. During hot periods of the year, crops sensitive to high temperatures, have shorter vase lives because flowers contain low carbohydrate levels. When the temperature is raised to an adversely high level to force earlier flowering, the same problem occurs. Nutrition of the crop likewise has an effect on flower longevity. Shortages or toxicities of nutrients that retard photosynthesis will reduce vase life. Deficiencies in a number of nutrients, including nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese, result in a reduction in the chlorophyll content, which in turn reduces photosynthesis. The net result is a low carbohydrate supply for the flower. High levels of nitrogen at flowering time can have an adverse effect on keeping quality. Diseases and insects reduce the vigor of the plant, directly reducing vase life. Diseases also reduce vase life indirectly: injured tissue releases large quantities of ethylene gas, which hastens senescence or deterioration of the flower.
Cause of Vase-Life Decline:                     Fresh flowers deteriorate for one or more reasons. Five of the most common reasons for early senescence are:

1. Inability of stems to absorb water due to blockage
2. Excessive water loss from the cut flower
3. A short supply of carbohydrate to support respiration
4. Diseases
5. Ethylene gas
        Inability to absorb water is a very common reason for premature wilting. The water-conducting tubes in the stem (xylem) become plugged. Bacteria, yeast, and/or fungi living in the water or on the flower or foliage proliferate in the containers holding the flowers. These microorganisms and their chemical products plug the stem ends, restricting water absorption. They continue to multiply inside and eventually block the xylem tubes. Chemical blockage also can occur. Chemicals present in some stems, upon cutting, change into a gumlike material which blocks the end of the stem.
Excessive water loss from flowers can lead to wilting and reduction in quality and vase life. After harvest, flowers should be removed from the field or greenhouse and refrigerated as soon as possible. Leaving the flowers out of water, in warm air or in warm drafts such as from a heater, causes considerable damage. Flowers should be in water and under cool temperatures as much as possible from the time they are cut until they reach the final customer.
       Low carbohydrates are another reason for flower deterioration. A low carbohydrate supply can occur as a result of improper storage temperature and handling. Respiration continues to be governed by temperature after harvest. Low temperatures reduce respiration and conserve carbohydrates, thereby prolonging quality and vase life. Each of the many stages in the marketing channel must be watched. Flowers should be placed in cold storage as soon after harvesting as possible. They should be refrigerated during surface transport and during holding periods at the wholesaler and retailer. Serious damage occurs when flowers are left on a heated loading dock at the motor or air freight terminal or when they are left sitting in a hot warehouse for a day or so.
       The harmful effect of ethylene. Fruits, especially apples, give off large quantities of ethylene gas, making it inadvisable to store lunches containing fruits in coolers. Ethylene is evolved from plant tissue, particularly injured and old plant tissue. The cooler should be kept clean of plant debris such as cut stems and leaves that might accumulate on the floor. Old unsalable flowers should be discarded. Ethylene gas has many deleterious effects. Generally it causes premature deterioration of flowers. Ethylene can cause flower wilting and is generally not reversible.
Preservatives for Extending Vase Life: Floral preservatives perform three functions:
1. Provide sugar (carbohydrate)
2. Supply a bactericide to prevent microbial growth and blockage of the water-conductive cells in the stem
3. Acidify the solution
     The most popular preservatives today contain 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (8-HQC) and sucrose (common table sugar). The 8-HQC is a bactericide and an acidifying agent. Besides suppressing bacterial development and lowering the pH, 8-HQC also prevents chemical blockage, thus aiding in the absorption of water. Sucrose taken up by the stem maintains quality and turgidity and extends vase life by supplementing the carbohydrate supply.
      There are a number of commercial preservatives on the market, including such products as Floralife®, Petalife®, Oasis®, Rogard®, and Everbloom®. These work well. One can also purchase 8-HQC under the name oxine citrate from florist supply companies and add sucrose to make the preservatives.
        The bactericide 8-HQC is not totally effective in preventing the buildup of bacteria in floral solutions. Chlorine is a very effective bactericide but dissipates quickly from solution unless provided in a slow-release form. Two slow-release forms sold extensively in products including bleaches, deodorizers, detergents, dishwashing compounds, and swimming-pool additives are DICA (sodium dichloroisocyanurate) and DDMH (1,3-dichloro-5,5-dimethyhydantoin). Both are highly effective bactericides for floral preservation. Each is used at a concentration of 300 ppm(0.41 oz/10 gal) in the place of 8-HQC DICA or DDMH is used with sucrose at a concentration of 2 percent (27 oz/10 gal). These chlorine compounds will bleach stems and leaves immersed in the preservative solution. They may also injure outer petals. These disadvantages are outweighed by the superior bactericidal effects of these materials.
       Floral preservatives are very effective in maintaining quality and extending longevity. On the average, they can double the vase life of cut flowers when compared to water. Snapdragons with a life expectancy of five to six days last up to twelve days in preservatives.
          The most common system for handling harvested flowers is refrigerated storage, which involves the following steps:
1. Flower stems should be cut with a sharp knife or shears to prevent crushing of stem and water-conduction cells.

2. The cut flowers should be placed in a preservative solution as soon as possible to prevent wilting. The flowers should not be allowed to be out of water while they are waiting to be transferred to the storage or grading rooms. If cut in the field, buckets containing solution can be brought out on trailers to hold the harvested flowers. Flowers cut in the greenhouse should not be left in the sun or out of water for more than a few minutes. One person should be assigned to carry these flowers to the grading room or storage cooler immediately.

3. As soon as flowers arrive at the storage room they should be placed in preservative solution inside the refrigerated storage room. If wilted, they should be placed in a warm preservative solution at room temperature until turgid. They should then be placed in the cooler.

4. The temperature of the refrigerated room should be 33 - 40 F. The lower the temperature, the better, because the respiration rate falls off with diminishing temperature. Low respiration rates have an effect similar to that resulting from adding sucrose to the preservative solution in that they conserve carbohydrates within the flower. A temperature range of 35 - 40 F is usually encountered in flower coolers.

5. Air should be gently circulated inside the cooler only to the extent necessary to insure uniform temperatures in all areas. Unprotected flowers placed in a direct air stream will be desiccated. Flowers immediately adjacent to a cooling coil may freeze even though the air temperature is above freezing. Since the coil itself is below the freezing point, radiant heat is lost from the flower to the coil, and the flower can be colder than the surrounding air.

6. Potential sources of ethylene gas should be avoided by keeping fruit and vegetables out of the cooler. Discard old flowers. Wash the inside of the cooler periodically.

7. Replace the preservative solution at two-to seven-day intervals. The preservative should be checked periodically for bacterial growth, which is apparent when the solution becomes cloudy. In spite of the bactericides in preservatives, microorganisms will develop and need to be eliminated periodically. To accomplish this, wash the buckets with a disinfectant such as bleach.
The wholesaler and retailer should hold the flowers under refrigeration. Whenever possible, flowers should be transported under refrigeration. Encourage the wholesaler and retailer to cut one-half inch from the base of the stems whenever it has been necessary to leave the flowers out of water for a period of time and then to place them in warm water at a cool air temperature to avoid the ends of the stems drying out and restricting water movement. Use a preservative solution throughout the entire marketing channel.
Flowers can be held in refrigerated storage for one to three weeks, depending on the species. Refrigerated storage is more generally used as an aid for maintaining quality as flowers pass through the market channel. Dry storage is used when flowers must be held for periods longer than one to five days.
Only the best-quality flowers should be dry stored. Those of poor quality will have a short vase life when they are removed from storage. Flowers should be cut and packaged for storage immediately without being placed in water. Standard cardboard flower boxes are suitable, but a lining of polyethylene film should be placed in them to cover the flowers and seal in moisture. Desiccation can be a problem in long-term storage, especially when an absorbent container such as cardboard is used.
A common problem of dry storage is the presence of free water on the flowers, which encourages the development of disease. While flowers freeze only at temperatures below 29 F, the free water will freeze at 32 F. Resulting ice crystals on the petals can be injurious. Boxes and flowers packed at warm temperatures develop condensation (free water) as the plants and air inside are cooled. Because of the polyethylene barrier, the water cannot escape. Disease, enhanced by this moisture, is a common cause of failure in dry storage. Boxes of flowers should be cooled open in a 38 - 40 F cooler, then sealed and placed in a 31 cooler.
Most flowers freeze at 27 - 29 F , so it is essential that the temperature stay above this point. Flower life expectancy is lessened at 33 F and drops rapidly at temperatures above that point. Many of the failures of this system have been due to high temperatures or fluctuating temperatures. Since the dry storage cooler should not be open too often, another cooler is needed for regular refrigerated storage. The 31 F cooler is often built inside the 35 - 40 F cooler to provide for a more uniform temperature.
Space should be left between boxes of flowers when they are placed in storage initially. Respiration is occurring, and this produces heat. A large stack of boxes can generate enough heat and provide sufficient insulation to prevent thorough cooling of the inner flowers. Leave space between each stack of boxes and between every other box in a stack to permit the absorption of heat by circulating cool air. Flowers removed from dry storage need to be hardened. Cut one-half inch from the bottom of each stem. Place the flower in a preservative solution inside a 38 - 40 F cooler. Allow the flowers to become fully turgid before marketing them; this will take 12 to 24 hours. When properly handled, dry stored flowers should have reasonable quality and the same longevity as fresh flowers. Poor temperature control or disease will decrease quality and longevity.
Dry storage is used only to a limited degree by the industry and works best with chrysanthemums. Chrysanthemums, carnations, and roses are the crops to which it is primarily applied. Much more potential exists here than is being realized. The main reason for its low level of acceptance has probably been failures due to poor handling of the system.
Bud harvesting is a procedure that is used infrequently but is fairly well proven and has a tremendous potential. Carnations and chrysanthemums can be harvested and shipped in the bud stage, which cuts down greatly on their volume and hence lowers the cost of shipping. The wholesaler may then store the buds or open them immediately for resale. Once open, the flower has at the least the same vase life potential as a flower cut mature.
Bud harvesting enables a grower to produce more crops per year in the greenhouse space. There is a significant increase in net return to the grower. There are other advantages to this system. Buds are more immune to handling injuries and ethylene toxicity, making a higher-quality final product possible. As in the case of mature harvested flowers, buds will dry store very well, enabling one to build up the inventory for higher-priced market dates. Bud harvesting is not a new concept for all crops, since roses, gladiolus, iris, tulips, peony, etc., have always been cut in the bud stage.
When needed, buds are removed from the storage box, one-half inch of stem is cut off, and they are placed in a floral preservative solution. The buckets of buds are held in an opening room at 70 - 75 F until the buds are fully open. A low light intensity is provided in the opening room. The open flowers may be held under refrigeration in the preservative solution or they may be sold directly. The quality and longevity of these flowers has been reported to be superior to those harvested at maturity.
Bud harvesting is becoming important. Growers who ship flowers great distances recognize its value and find it necessary to use this system. Greater cooperation among growers, wholesalers, and retailers will foster it even more.

Gerbera cultivation

GERBERA (Gerbera jamesonii)
Sun Set, Nevada, Sangna, Lynx, Macho, YCD-1, YCD-2, Vino, Venturi. etc. are the popular varieties of gerbera.
Soil and Climate                                                                                                   
Sandy loam with good drainage capacity having a pH of 5.5 – 6.0 is more suitable. Temperature should be within the range of 25° C - 27°C to avoid bud abortion/scorching.  It is better to raise the crop under poly/green house.
The crop can be cultivated throughout the year.
Propagation and Planting                                                                                 
It can be propagated through suckers and tissue culture plantlets. Raised beds with 4 ft. width and 40 cm height are formed at an interval of 60 cm and planting is done at a spacing of 30 x 30 cm.

  Greenhouse cultivation of gerbera
Before starting gerbera cultivation, disinfection of the soil is absolutely necessary to minimize the infestation of soil borne pathogens like Phytophthora, Fusarium and Pythium which could otherwise destroy the crop completely. The beds should be drenched / fumigated with 2% formaldehyde (100 ml formalin in 5 litres of water / m2 area) or methyl bromide (70 g / m2) and then covered with a plastic sheet for a minimum period of 2 to 3 days.  The beds should be subsequently watered thoroughly to drain the chemicals before planting. Well developed tissue culture plants having 4 -6 leaves can be planted firmly without burying the crown.
Drip irrigation is done once in 2 – 3 days @ 3.75 litre/drip/plant for 15 – 20 minutes. Average water requirement is about 500 – 700 ml/day/plant.

Drip irrigation for gerbera
Neem cake 2.5 ton/ha
P  - 400 g/100 sq.ft.
MgSo4 - 0.5 kg/100 sq.ft.
Top dressing
Calcium Ammonium Nitrate and Muriate of Potash at the ratio of 5:3 is mixed and applied at 2.5 g/plant/month.
1. Hand weeding is done whenever necessary.
2. Remove the flower buds up to 2 months and then allow for flowering
3. Rake the soil once in 15 days to facilitate easy absorption of water, fertilizer and to provide air to the roots.
4. Remove older leaves to facilitate new leaf growth and good sanitation.
Plant Protection
1. To control Nematode - Carbofuran 7-8 kg/ha is applied at the time of planting.
2. Leaf spot - Carbendazim 2 g/lit or Mancozeb 2 g/lit is sprayed alternatively.
3. Leaf miner - Chlorpyriphos 20 EC 2 ml/lit.
4. Glasshouse whitefly   - Monocrotophos 36 WSC 2 ml/lit or Neem oil 3 ml/lit.
Season of flowering and Harvesting                                                              
When flowers completely open, harvesting is done. Flower stalk is soaked in Sodium hypochloride solution (5-7 ml/lit of water) for 4-5 hours to improve vase life.    

Gerbera ready for harvest
Post harvest handling
Harvesting is done when outer 2-3 rows of disc florets are perpendicular to the stalk. The heel for the stalk should be cut about 2-3 cm above the base and kept in fresh chlorinated water. Flowers should be graded and sorted out in uniform batches. Flowers packed individually in poly puches and then put in to carton boxes in two layers.
An abnormality characterized by numerous leaves, short petioles and small laminae, which gives some cultivars of gerbera a bushy appearance known as bushiness. Nodes are not clearly distinguished and no internode elongation is seen.
Stem break
It is a common post harvest disorder in cut gerberas. This is mainly caused by water imbalances. It could be ethylene controlled and associated with early senescence caused by water stress.
Yellowing and purple margin
Nitrogen deficiency causes yellowing and early senescence of leaves. Phosphorus deficiency causes pale yellow colour with purple margin. Increase in levels of nitrogen and phosphorus were found to promote development of suckers and improve flowering in gerbera.
Based on stem length and diameter, flowers are graded in A, B, C and D.
The crop yields 2 stems / plant / month.  Harvest starts from 3rd month of planting and continued up to two years. Under open condition, 130 -160 flowers / m2 / year and under greenhouse condition, 175 - 200 flowers /m2 / year can be obtained.

jasmine cultivation


JATHI MALLI (PITCHI) Jasminum grandiflorum L.
Co 1 and Co 2 are the popular varieties of jathimalli.

Soil and climate
Well drained red loamy soils and tropical climate are best suited.
Season of planting
Planting spreads from June - November.
Propagation and planting
Layers or rooted cuttings are planted at 2.0 x 1.5 m spacing (3350 plants/ha) in 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm pits.
Irrigation is done once in 10 days.
FYM or compost 10 kg, NPK at 60, 120 and 120 g per plant is applied in 2 split doses in December after pruning and again in June - July.
Pruning is done during the last week of December to 45 cm height from ground level.
Plant protection
Bud worm
Bud worm can be controlled by spraying Monocrotophos 2 ml/lit to control.
Holotrichia beetle   
Install light trap to attract the adults immediately after summer rain.
Incorporate Lindane 1.3 D into the soil @ 25 g/bush.
Red spider mite
Spray 50 % Wettable sulphur 2 g/lit to control the mite infestation.
White ants
To control, dust Lindane 1.3 D to the pits before planting at 5 g/pit.
Leaf spot
Spraying of Mancozeb at 2 g/lit. from the onset of monsoon at monthly intervals will control the disease occurence.
Season of flowering and harvest
The season starts from May to October. Fully developed unopened flower buds are picked in the morning for fresh flower trade. For oil extraction opened flowers are to be picked before 10 a.m. 

Flower opening
Opened flowers for oil extraction
The flower yield is 11 t/ha of flower buds
About 29 kg/ha of Jasmine concretes can be obtained.

Rose cultivation

HYBRID ROSE (Rosa hybrida)
Gladiator, Baby Pink, Sofia Lawrence, YCD 1, YCD 2, YCD 3 are commonly cultivated.

Soil and climate
It is generally suitable for higher elevation (1500 m and above). It can also be grown in the plains under ideal condition of fertile loamy soils with salt-free irrigation water. The ideal climate for rose growing should have temperature with a minimum of 15°C and maximum of 28°C. Light is important factor which decides the growth. The growth is slowed by day length, i.e. > 12 hours and heavy overcast, cloudy/mist conditions. High relative humidity exposes the plant to serious fungal diseases. In tropics the ideal temperature is 25°C – 30°C on sunny day and on cloudy day 18°C – 20°C. The optimum temperature should be 15°C – 18°C. These temperatures are extremely difficult to find and it’s therefore to compromise.
Propagation and planting
The crop can be propagated by rooted cuttings or by budding on Briar root stocks in hills and on Edward Rose and Rosa indica in plains. One year old budded plants are planted in July - August at 75 cm x 75 cm spacing.
Planting of Rose
After cultivation
The plants should be watered daily until they establish and thereafter once in a week. Pruning is done during March and October. Spray Diuran 2.5 kg a.i/ha to control weeds.  Avoid spray fluid coming in contact with Rose plants.

Support of the plants
Post is placed at internals of 3m on both sides of the bed. Along the sides of the bed, galvanized wires or plastic string are fastened at the posts at 30cm – 40cm intervals to support the plant. Between the wires across the bed, thin strings can be tied to keep the width of the beds constant.
Varieties produce some side buds below the center bud. These side buds have to be removed or disbudded. The disbudding must be done regularly and also as soon as possible in order to avoid large wounds in the upper leaf axil.


Dead shoot removal
In the old plants the dead shoot or dried shoots on plants will serve as the host for fungi. So regularly these have to be removed.
Soil loosening on beds
After 6 months or so, there is every chance that the soil become stony and it has to be loosened for efficient irrigation.
Leaf is a source of food for every plant. There should be balance between Source (Assimilation) and sink (Dissimilation). After planting, 2 to 3 eye buds will sprout on main branch. These sprouts will grow as branches and these branches in turn form buds. The mother shoot is bend on 2nd leaf or nearer to the crown region. The first bottom break or ground shoot will start coming from the base. These ground shoots form the basic framework for production and thereon the ground shoots should be cut at 5th five pair of leaves and medium ground shoots should be cut at 2nd or 3rd five pair of leaves.

The removal of leaves is known as defoliation. It is done mainly to induce certain plant species to flower or to reduce transpiration loss during periods of stress. Defoliation may be done by removal of leaves manually or by withholding water. The shoots are defoliated after pruning.
At three months interval, apply FYM at 10 kg and 8:8:16 g NPK/plant after each pruning. For cv. Happiness NPK may be applied @ 75:150:50 g/plant/year.
Harvesting is done with sharp secateure at the tight bud stage when the colour is fully developed and the petals have not yet started unfolding. There should be 1-2 mature leaves (those with five leaflets) left on the plant after the flower has been cut. The reason for leaving these matures leaves is to encourage production of new strong shoots. Harvesting is done preferably during early morning hours.
Secateur for harvest                        Harvesting technique
Postharvest handling
Roses must be placed in a bucket of water inside the polyhouse immediately after harvesting and transported to cold storage (2-4°C). The length of time depends upon the variety and quality of the roses.The flowers are graded according to the length. It varies from 40-70 cm depending on the variety and packed in 10/12 per bunch.

Pre cooling
Physiological disorders
Blind wood
The normal flowering shoot on a greenhouse rose possesses fully expanded sepals, petals, and reproductive parts. The failure to develop a flower on the apical end of the stem is a common occurrence. Such shoots are termed as blind wood. The sepals and petals are present, but the reproductive parts are absent or aborted. Blind wood is generally short and thin, but it may attain considerable length and thickness when it develops at the top of the plant. This may be caused by low temperature, insufficient light, chemical residues, insect, pests, fungal diseases and other factors.
Bull heads or malformed flowers
The center petals of the bud remain only partly developed and the bud appears flat. They are common on very vigorous shoots, particularly bottom breaks, and it is possible that there is a lack of carbohydrates to develop the petals. The cause of bull heading is yet unknown, however, thrips infestation will also cause malformed flowers. Also at low temperature, some varieties will form bull heads.
Colour fading
The off- coloured flowers are seem to be a problem with some yellow varieties. In these varieties the petals may be green or a dirty white instead of a clear yellow. Raising the night temperature several degrees will reduce the number of off-coloured flowers. Occasionally the pink or red varieties develop bluish-coloured flowers. This is very often associated with use of organic phosphate and various other kinds of insecticides.
Limp necks
The area of the stem just below the flower “wilts” and will not support the head. This may be due to insufficient water absorption; cutting off the lower 1 to 2 inches of stem and placing the cut stem in water at 37°C will revive the flower.
Blackening of rose petals
This is caused by low temperature and high anthocyanin content. GA3 treatment causes accumulation of anthocyanin in petals of Baccara roses. This effect was more pronounced at low temperature (20°C at day and 4°C at night) than in higher temperature (30°C at day and 20°C at night).
Nutritional disorders
Iron deficiencies can cause pale foliage. Adjusting the pH of the soil may solve this problem.
The Hybrid Teas roses can yield about 70 – 80 stems/plant/year, while the Floribundas yield yields 80 -90 stems/plant/year.