tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
PKM 1, CO 3 (Marutham) and Paiyur 1, Arka Abhijit, Arka Abha, Arka Ananya, Arka Alok, Arka Shreshta, Arka vardan, Arka Vishal, Arka Vikas, Arka Saurab, Arka Meghali and Arka Ahuti are some of the popular varieties.
Well drained loamy soils rich in organic matter with a pH range of 6.5-7.5 are more suitable.
Season of sowing
Planting is done during May - June and November – December
About 400g of seeds is required for a hectare.
Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride 4 g or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g or Carbendazim 2 g per kg of seeds 24 hours before sowing. Just before sowing, treat the seeds with 40 g of Azospirillum.
Apply FYM 10 kg, Neem cake 1 kg, VAM 50 g, Super phosphate 100 g and Furadon 10 g per square metre during the nursery area preparation. Sow the seeds in lines at 10 cm apart in raised seed nursery beds and cover with sand. Irrigation is done using rose can and the seedlings are transplanted 25 days after sowing.
Preparation of field
Plough the land to a fine tilth. Apply 2 kg/ha of Azospirillum and Phosphobacterium mixed with 100 kg FYM before planting and form ridges and furrows.
PKM 1, Paiyur 1 : 60 x 45 cm
Co 3 : 45 x 30 cm
Irrigate the field and then transplant the seedlings on one side of the ridges.
Life irrigation is given on 3rd day of planting followed by subsequent irrigations once in 4-5 days. After establishment of seedlings irrigate at weekly intervals.
Application of fertilizer
Apply FYM 25 t/ha, N 75 kg, P 100 kg, K 50 kg, Borax 10 kg and Zinc sulphate 50 kg/ha as basal dose and 75 kg N/ha on 30th day of planting during earthing up. Spray 1.25 ppm (1.25 mg in one lit) Triacontanol, 30 days after transplanting and at full bloom stage to increase the yield.
Apply Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i./ha or Fluchloralin 1 kg a.i./ha as pre-emergent herbicide followed by one hand weeding on 30 days after planting. Mulching with black Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) sheets of 25 micron thickness by burying both the ends into the soil to a depth of 10 cm will avoid weed growth.
PKM 1 : 30-35 t/ha
CO 3 : 40 t/ha
Paiyur : 30 t/ha
COTH 1 and COTH 2
Planting is done during May – June and November – December
About 150 g of seeds are required for a hectare
Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4g/kg of seeds 24 hours before sowing and with Azospirillum @ 20 g/150 g just before sowing.
The seedlings are raised under 50% shade net nursery unit. Seeds can be sown in 0.8 mm thick protrays (98 cells) filled with 1.25 kg composted coir pith. The seeds are sown @ one seed per cell and kept in the raised beds. The seedlings are transplanted 25 days after sowing.
Field preparation and planting
Prepare the field with the addition of FYM @ 25 t/ha and form ridges and furrows at a spacing of 60 cm. Apply each 2 kg/ha (10 packets) of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria by mixing with 20 kg of FYM. Irrigate the furrows and transplant the seedlings, with the ball of earth, on the ridges adopting a spacing of 45 cm between the plants.
Basal Dose : NPK 50:300:50 kg/ha
Top dressing : N and K each 150 kg/ha in 3 equal splits at 30, 45 and 60 days after planting.
Irrigate the field on the third day of planting and subsequently at weekly intervals.
Apply Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i./ha or Fluchloralin 1 kg a.i./ha as pre-emergence followed by one hand weeding on 30 days after planting. Mulching with black Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) sheets of 25 micron thickness by burying both the ends into the soil to a depth of 10 cm will avoid weed growth.
a) Stake the plants 30 days after planting with 1 - 1.5 m tall stakes.
b) Remove the side branches up to 20 cm from ground level.
c) Foliar spray of ZnSO4 (0.5 per cent) thrice at 10 days interval from 40 days after planting.
Average yield is 80-90 t/ha
Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura (common control measures for both the pests)
Grow simultaneously 40 days old American tall marigold and 25 days old tomato seedlings @ 1:16 rows.
1. Set up pheromone traps @ 12/ha.
2. Collection and destruction of damaged fruits and grown up caterpillars.
3. Spray Endosulfan 35 EC 2 ml/lit or Carbaryl 50 WP 2 g/lit or Bacillus thuringiensis 2g/lit or Quinalphos 2.5 ml/lit.
4. Release Trichogramma chilonis @ 50000/ha/release coinciding with flowering time and based on ETL.
For Helicoverpa armigera:
Helicoverpa armigeraNuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (H.a.NPV) 1.5 x 1012 POBs/ha
For Spodoptera litura:
Spodoptera litura Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (S.l. NPV )1.5 x 1012 POBs/ha5. Provide poison bait with Carbaryl 1.25 kg, rice bran 12.5 kg, jaggery 1.25 kg and water 7.5 lit/ha.
Serpentine leaf miner
Serpentine leaf miner can be controlled by spraying Neem Seed Kernel Extract 50 g/lit.
1. Install yellow sticky traps to attract the adult.
2. Spray Dichlorvos 76 WSC @ 1 ml/lit or Triazophos 40 EC 2 ml/lit or fish oil rosin soap 25 g/lit or Dimethoate 2 ml/lit or Methyl demeton 25 EC 2 ml/lit along with the wetting agent (Teepol@ 1 ml/lit)
3. Remove alternate weed host Abutilon indicum
Application of Carbofuran 3 G at 10 g/sq.m at sowing and 1 kg a.i./ha in the main field one week after transplanting. Treat the seeds with antagonistic fungi Trichoderma viride or T. harzianum at 4 g/ha seed along with pressmud at 5 kg/m2 or Carbofuran 3G at 10 g/m2 to control rootknot nematode.
Damping off (nursery)
Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride 4 g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g /kg of seed 24 hours before sowing. Apply Pseudomonas fluorescens as soil application @ 2.5 kg/ha mixed with 50 kg of FYM. Water stagnation should be avoided. Drench with Copper oxychloride at 2.5 g/lit at 4 lit/sq.m.
Leaf spot can be controlled by spraying Zineb or Mancozeb 2 g/lit.
Spray systemic insecticides like Methyl demeton or Monocrotophos or Dimethoate at 2 ml/lit. to kill the insect vector (whitefly).
Tomato spotted wilt disease
Apply Carbofuran 3 G 1 kg. a.i./ha in nursery at sowing and second application at 1.25 kg a.i./ha 10 days after transplanting in mainfield and 3 sprays of Endosulphan 35 EC 1.5 ml/lit @ 25, 40, 55 days after transplanting.
Tomato spotted wilt disease